China's National Defense in the New Era

国务院新闻办公室7月24日发表《新时代的中国国防》白皮书。

Source
Xinhuanet
Editor
Chen Zhuo
Time
2019-07-24 15:36:18

 

二、新时代中国防御性国防政策

II. China’s Defensive National Defense Policy in the New Era

中国的社会主义国家性质,走和平发展道路的战略抉择,独立自主的和平外交政策,“和为贵”的中华文化传统,决定了中国始终不渝奉行防御性国防政策。

The socialist system of China, the strategic decision to follow the path of peaceful development, the independent foreign policy of peace, and the best of cultural traditions – considering peace and harmony as fundamentals – determine that China will pursue a national defense policy that is defensive in nature.

坚决捍卫国家主权、安全、发展利益

Resolutely Safeguarding China’s Sovereignty, Security and Development Interests

这是新时代中国国防的根本目标。

This is the fundamental goal of China’s national defense in the new era. China’s national defense aims:

慑止和抵抗侵略,保卫国家政治安全、人民安全和社会稳定,反对和遏制“台独”,打击“藏独”“东突”等分裂势力,保卫国家主权、统一、领土完整和安全。维护国家海洋权益,维护国家在太空、电磁、网络空间等安全利益,维护国家海外利益,支撑国家可持续发展。

•to deter and resist aggression;

•to safeguard national political security, the people’s security and social stability;

•to oppose and contain “Taiwan independence”;

•to crack down on proponents of separatist movements such as “Tibet independence” and the creation of “East Turkistan”;

•to safeguard national sovereignty, unity, territorial integrity and security;

•to safeguard China’s maritime rights and interests;

•to safeguard China’s security interests in outer space, electromagnetic space and cyberspace;

•to safeguard China’s overseas interests; and

•to support the sustainable development of the country.

中国坚定维护国家主权和领土完整。南海诸岛、钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿是中国固有领土。中国在南海岛礁进行基础设施建设,部署必要的防御性力量,在东海钓鱼岛海域进行巡航,是依法行使国家主权。中国致力于同直接有关的当事国在尊重历史事实和国际法的基础上,通过谈判协商解决有关争议。中国坚持同地区国家一道维护和平稳定,坚定维护各国依据国际法所享有的航行和飞越自由,维护海上通道安全。

China resolutely safeguards its national sovereignty and territorial integrity. The South China Sea islands and Diaoyu Islands are inalienable parts of the Chinese territory. China exercises its national sovereignty to build infrastructure and deploy necessary defensive capabilities on the islands and reefs in the South China Sea, and to conduct patrols in the waters of Diaoyu Islands in the East China Sea. China is committed to resolving related disputes through negotiations with those states directly involved on the basis of respecting historical facts and international law. China continues to work with regional countries to jointly maintain peace and stability. It firmly upholds freedom of navigation and overflight by all countries in accordance with international law and safeguards the security of sea lines of communication (SLOCs).

解决台湾问题,实现国家完全统一,是中华民族的根本利益,是实现中华民族伟大复兴的必然要求。中国坚持“和平统一、一国两制”方针,推动两岸关系和平发展,推进中国和平统一进程,坚决反对一切分裂中国的图谋和行径,坚决反对任何外国势力干涉。中国必须统一,也必然统一。中国有坚定决心和强大能力维护国家主权和领土完整,决不允许任何人、任何组织、任何政党、在任何时候、以任何形式、把任何一块中国领土从中国分裂出去。我们不承诺放弃使用武力,保留采取一切必要措施的选项,针对的是外部势力干涉和极少数“台独”分裂分子及其分裂活动,绝非针对台湾同胞。如果有人要把台湾从中国分裂出去,中国军队将不惜一切代价,坚决予以挫败,捍卫国家统一。

To solve the Taiwan question and achieve complete reunification of the country is in the fundamental interests of the Chinese nation and essential to realizing national rejuvenation. China adheres to the principles of “peaceful reunification”, and “one country, two systems”, promotes peaceful development of cross-Strait relations, and advances peaceful reunification of the country. Meanwhile, China resolutely opposes any attempts or actions to split the country and any foreign interference to this end. China must be and will be reunited. China has the firm resolve and the ability to safeguard national sovereignty and territorial integrity, and will never allow the secession of any part of its territory by anyone, any organization or any political party by any means at any time. We make no promise to renounce the use of force, and reserve the option of taking all necessary measures. This is by no means targeted at our compatriots in Taiwan, but at the interference of external forces and the very small number of “Taiwan independence” separatists and their activities. The PLA will resolutely defeat anyone attempting to separate Taiwan from China and safeguard national unity at all costs.

坚持永不称霸、永不扩张、永不谋求势力范围

Never Seeking Hegemony, Expansion or Spheres of Influence

这是新时代中国国防的鲜明特征。

This is the distinctive feature of China’s national defense in the new era.

国虽大,好战必亡。中华民族历来爱好和平。近代以来,中国人民饱受侵略和战乱之苦,深感和平之珍贵、发展之迫切,决不会把自己经受过的悲惨遭遇强加于人。新中国成立70年来,中国没有主动挑起过任何一场战争和冲突。改革开放以来,中国致力于促进世界和平,主动裁减军队员额400余万。中国由积贫积弱发展成为世界第二大经济体,靠的不是别人的施舍,更不是军事扩张和殖民掠夺,而是人民勤劳、维护和平。中国既通过维护世界和平为自身发展创造有利条件,又通过自身发展促进世界和平,真诚希望所有国家都选择和平发展道路,共同防范冲突和战争。

Though a country may become strong, bellicosity will lead to its ruin. The Chinese nation has always loved peace. Since the beginning of modern times, the Chinese people have suffered from aggressions and wars, and have learned the value of peace and the pressing need for development. Therefore, China will never inflict such sufferings on any other country. Since its founding 70 years ago, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has never started any war or conflict. Since the introduction of reform and opening-up, China has been committed to promoting world peace, and has voluntarily downsized the PLA by over 4 million troops. China has grown from a poor and weak country to be the world’s second largest economy neither by receiving handouts from others nor by engaging in military expansion or colonial plunder. Instead, it has developed through its people’s hard work and its efforts to maintain peace. China has made every effort to create favorable conditions for its development through maintaining world peace, and has equally endeavored to promote world peace through its own development. China sincerely hopes that all countries will choose the path of peaceful development and jointly prevent conflicts and wars.

中国坚持在和平共处五项原则基础上发展同各国的友好合作,尊重各国人民自主选择发展道路的权利,主张通过平等对话和谈判协商解决国际争端,反对干涉别国内政,反对恃强凌弱,反对把自己的意志强加于人。中国坚持结伴不结盟,不参加任何军事集团,反对侵略扩张,反对动辄使用武力或以武力相威胁。中国的国防建设和发展,始终着眼于满足自身安全的正当需要,始终是世界和平力量的增长。历史已经并将继续证明,中国决不走追逐霸权、“国强必霸”的老路。无论将来发展到哪一步,中国都不会威胁谁,都不会谋求建立势力范围。

China is committed to developing friendly cooperation with all countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. It respects the rights of all peoples to independently choose their own development path, and stands for the settlement of international disputes through equal dialogue, negotiation and consultation. China is opposed to interference in the internal affairs of others, abuse of the weak by the strong, and any attempt to impose one’s will on others. China advocates partnerships rather than alliances and does not join any military bloc. It stands against aggression and expansion, and opposes arbitrary use or threat of arms. The development of China’s national defense aims to meet its rightful security needs and contribute to the growth of the world’s peaceful forces. History proves and will continue to prove that China will never follow the beaten track of big powers in seeking hegemony. No matter how it might develop, China will never threaten any other country or seek any sphere of influence.

贯彻落实新时代军事战略方针

Implementing the Military Strategic Guideline for a New Era

这是新时代中国国防的战略指导。

This is the strategic guidance for China’s national defense in the new era.

新时代军事战略方针,坚持防御、自卫、后发制人原则,实行积极防御,坚持“人不犯我、我不犯人,人若犯我、我必犯人”,强调遏制战争与打赢战争相统一,强调战略上防御与战役战斗上进攻相统一。

The military strategic guideline for a new era adheres to the principles of defense, self-defense and post-strike response, and adopts active defense. It keeps to the stance that “we will not attack unless we are attacked, but we will surely counterattack if attacked”, places emphasis on both containing and winning wars, and underscores the unity of strategic defense and offense at operational and tactical levels.

贯彻落实新时代军事战略方针,服从服务党和国家战略全局,落实总体国家安全观,强化忧患意识、危机意识、打仗意识,积极适应战略竞争新格局、国家安全新需求、现代战争新形态,有效履行新时代军队使命任务。根据国家面临的安全威胁,扎实做好军事斗争准备,全面提高新时代备战打仗能力,构建立足防御、多域统筹、均衡稳定的新时代军事战略布局。坚持全民国防,创新人民战争的战略战术和内容方法,充分发挥人民战争整体威力。

Implementing the military strategic guideline for a new era, China’s armed forces strive to keep in alignment with and contribute to the general strategies of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the country, adopt a holistic approach to national security, strengthen the awareness of potential dangers, crises and wars, and actively adapt to the new landscape of strategic competition, the new demands of national security, and new developments in modern warfare, so as to effectively fulfill their tasks and missions in the new era. To respond to the security threats facing the country, China’s armed forces take solid steps to strengthen military preparedness and comprehensively enhance combat capabilities for the new era. Efforts have been made to build the military strategy into a balanced and stable one for the new era, which focuses on defense and coordinates multiple domains. Based on the idea that China’s national defense is the responsibility of all Chinese people, China’s armed forces give full play to the overall power of the people’s war by innovating in its strategies, tactics and measures.

中国始终奉行在任何时候和任何情况下都不首先使用核武器、无条件不对无核武器国家和无核武器区使用或威胁使用核武器的核政策,主张最终全面禁止和彻底销毁核武器,不会与任何国家进行核军备竞赛,始终把自身核力量维持在国家安全需要的最低水平。中国坚持自卫防御核战略,目的是遏制他国对中国使用或威胁使用核武器,确保国家战略安全。

China is always committed to a nuclear policy of no first use of nuclear weapons at any time and under any circumstances, and not using or threatening to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones unconditionally. China advocates the ultimate complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons. China does not engage in any nuclear arms race with any other country and keeps its nuclear capabilities at the minimum level required for national security. China pursues a nuclear strategy of self-defense, the goal of which is to maintain national strategic security by deterring other countries from using or threatening to use nuclear weapons against China.

坚持走中国特色强军之路

Continuing to Strengthen the Military in the Chinese Way

这是新时代中国国防的发展路径。

This is the path forward for China’s national defense in the new era.

建设同国际地位相称、同国家安全和发展利益相适应的巩固国防和强大军队,是中国社会主义现代化建设的战略任务,是坚持走和平发展道路的安全保障,是总结历史经验的必然选择。

Building a fortified national defense and a strong military commensurate with the country’s international standing and its security and development interests is a strategic task for China’s socialist modernization. Drawing lessons from history, China strengthens its national defense and military to provide security guarantee for its peaceful development.

新时代中国国防和军队建设,深入贯彻习近平强军思想,深入贯彻习近平军事战略思想,坚持政治建军、改革强军、科技兴军、依法治军,聚焦能打仗、打胜仗,推动机械化信息化融合发展,加快军事智能化发展,构建中国特色现代军事力量体系,完善和发展中国特色社会主义军事制度,不断提高履行新时代使命任务的能力。

To strengthen China’s national defense and military in the new era, it is imperative to comprehensively implement Xi Jinping’s thinking on strengthening the military, thoroughly deliver on Xi Jinping’s thinking on military strategy, continue to enhance the political loyalty of the armed forces, strengthen them through reform and technology, run them in accordance with the law, and focus on the capabilities to fight and win. Efforts will be made to advance the integrated development of mechanization and informationization, speed up the development of intelligent military, create a modernized military force structure with Chinese characteristics, improve and develop socialist military institutions with Chinese features, and constantly enhance the capabilities to fulfill the missions and tasks in the new era.

新时代中国国防和军队建设的战略目标是,到2020年基本实现机械化,信息化建设取得重大进展,战略能力有大的提升。同国家现代化进程相一致,全面推进军事理论现代化、军队组织形态现代化、军事人员现代化、武器装备现代化,力争到2035年基本实现国防和军队现代化,到本世纪中叶把人民军队全面建成世界一流军队。

The strategic goals for the development of China’s national defense and military in the new era are:

 •to generally achieve mechanization by the year 2020 with significantly enhanced informationization and greatly improved strategic capabilities;

•to comprehensively advance the modernization of military theory, organizational structure, military personnel, and weaponry and equipment in step with the modernization of the country and basically complete the modernization of national defense and the military by 2035; and

 •to fully transform the people’s armed forces into world-class forces by the mid-21st century.

服务构建人类命运共同体

In the Service of Building of a Community with a Shared Future for Mankind

这是新时代中国国防的世界意义。

This is the global significance of China’s national defense in the new era.

中国人民的梦想与世界人民的梦想息息相通。一个和平稳定繁荣的中国,是世界的机遇和福祉。一支强大的中国军队,是维护世界和平稳定、服务构建人类命运共同体的坚定力量。

The dream of the Chinese people is closely connected with the dreams of peoples around the world. Peace, stability and prosperity in China present opportunities and benefits to the rest of the world. A strong military of China is a staunch force for world peace, stability and the building of a community with a shared future for mankind.

中国军队坚持共同、综合、合作、可持续的安全观,秉持正确义利观,积极参与全球安全治理体系改革,深化双边和多边安全合作,促进不同安全机制间协调包容、互补合作,营造平等互信、公平正义、共建共享的安全格局。

China’s armed forces advocate common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security, uphold justice while pursuing shared interests, and actively participate in the reform of global security governance system. Efforts are made to deepen bilateral and multilateral security cooperation, promote a coordinated, inclusive and complementary cooperation among security mechanisms, and contribute to a security architecture featuring equality, mutual trust, fairness, justice, joint contribution and shared benefits.

中国军队坚持履行国际责任和义务,始终高举合作共赢的旗帜,在力所能及的范围内向国际社会提供更多公共安全产品,积极参加国际维和、海上护航、人道主义救援等行动,加强国际军控和防扩散合作,建设性参与热点问题的政治解决,共同维护国际通道安全,合力应对恐怖主义、网络安全、重大自然灾害等全球性挑战,积极为构建人类命运共同体贡献力量。

Committed to the principle of win-win cooperation, China’s armed forces will fulfill their international responsibilities and obligations, and provide more public security goods to the international community to the best of their capacity. They actively participate in the UN peacekeeping operations (UNPKOs), vessel protection operations, and international efforts in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HADR), strengthen international cooperation in arms control and non-proliferation, play a constructive role in the political settlement of hotspot issues, jointly maintain the security of international passages, and make concerted efforts to respond to global challenges such as terrorism, cyber security and major natural disasters, thus making a positive contribution to building a community with a shared future for mankind.

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